4.2 Style

4.2.2 Using connectives

In order to make your essay easy to read, you will want to use connectives. These are words that connect ideas and make the relation between ideas clear and understandable. In other words, they will help your essay 'flow' better. Here is an alphabetical list of connectives. Download the worksheet and do the activity to discuss their uses. 


  • after
  • although
  • as a result of
  • at the same time
  • besides
  • certainly
  • consequently
  • despite
  • earlier
  • echoing this
  • even if
  • even though
  • finally
  • firstly... secondly...
  • following on from this
  • for instance / for example
  • for this reason
  • furthermore
  • however
  • in addition
  • in conclusion
  • in spite of 
  • in summary
  • in the same vein 
  • indeed
  • instead
  • later
  • likewise
  • meanwhile
  • moreover
  • nevertheless
  • nonetheless
  • not only... but also...
  • notwithstanding
  • now we look at
  • on the one hand
  • on the other hand
  • one reason why...
  • otherwise
  • similarly
  • since
  • summing up
  • that said
  • therefore
  • whether
Figure 4.2.2a - Chain link
Using connectives makes your essay feel stronger, like a chain.


Download the worksheet. For each of the connectives, decide how you might use each one. Place 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 in the column following the term. (It is possible that some terms may have more than one usage, depending on the actual context.)
  1.  support for an earlier idea(s)
  2. possible alternatives to an earlier idea(s)
  3. a sense of order or progression from one idea to the next
  4. a summing up of earlier ideas, conclusions to be drawn
  5. none of the above / other, namely...