4.2 Style

4.2.3 Including other people's ideas

As you write your essay, you will make reference to primary and secondary sources. How do include other people's ideas, so as to give them credit in an academically honest way? How do you include citations without interrupting the 'flow' of your essay? There are several ways, as you can see in the examples below. The APA style guide has been applied to these examples. 

Paraphrasing

Example from essay It could be, of course, that we rely too much on the Internet. Technology journalist Nicholas Carr, for instance, suggests that many people have given up learning and remembering, relying entirely on their devices when they need to find out. 
In 'Works Cited'

Carr, N. (2011).  The shallows: how the internet is changing the way we think, read and remember. London: Atlantic

Why use this format? This is very useful for introducing a source that you will be referring to multiple times. It gives credit where credit is due. 
How to do it Notice in the example that the verb 'to suggest' is used. Other verbs that work well: say, state, claim, note, point out, show, demonstrate, believe or report

In-text citation, known author

Example from essay It could be, of course, that we rely too much on the Internet. As Nicholas Carr states in The Shallows, "many people have given up learning and remembering, relying entirely on their devices when they need to find out" (180).
In 'Works Cited'

Carr, N. (2011).  The shallows: how the internet is changing the way we think, read and remember. London: Atlantic

Why use this format? This is very useful for introducing an author or source that you will be referring to multiple times. It gives credit where credit is due by using the source's exact words. 
How to do it Notice that the name of the author and the work are given. Notice the page number appears in parenthesis, outside the quotation marks and before the full stop. 

In-text citation

Example from essay It could be, of course, that we rely too much on the Internet. As it has been claimed, "many people have given up learning and remembering, relying entirely on their devices when they need to find out" (Carr, 180).
In the 'Works Cited'

Carr, N. (2011).  The shallows: how the internet is changing the way we think, read and remember. London: Atlantic

Why use this format? Inserting the quotation does not interrupt the flow of the writing. Nevertheless, the author has been quoted and given credit for his/her ideas.  
How to do it You can a passive verb phrase, such as 'it has been claimed'. Notice the page number appears in parenthesis together with the author's last name, outside the quotation marks and before the full stop. 

Citing a work within a work

Example from essay

It could be, of course, that we rely too much on the internet. Technology journalist Nicholas Carr, for instance, suggests that many people have given up learning and remembering, relying entirely on their devices when they need to find out. He quotes Clive Thompson, who said, "I've almost given up making an effort to remember anything because I can instantly retrieve the information online." Carr quotes several other writers who have made similar suggestions: they claim that Google has replaced memory (Carr, 2011, 180).

In the 'Works Cited'

Carr, N. (2011).  The shallows: how the internet is changing the way we think, read and remember. London: Atlantic

Why use this format? You may want to show that the relation between sources, emphasising that one appears within the other.  
How to do it It is best to be clear in stating 'X quotes Y'. 

Citing two, related works

Example from essay

It could be, of course, that we rely too much on the internet.  For instance, Clive Thompson has claimed, "I've almost given up making an effort to remember anything because I can instantly retrieve the information online" (2007)Nicholas Carr has used this and other quotations which suggest that many people have given up learning and remembering; they rely entirely on their devices when they need to find facts. out.  It would seem that, for many, Google has replaced memory (Carr, 2011, 180 ff.).

In the 'Works Cited'

Carr, N. (2011).  The shallows: how the internet is changing the way we think, read and remember. London: Atlantic

Thompson, C. (2007, Oct. 25). "Your outboard brain knows all," Wired. http://www.wired.com/techbiz/people/magazine/15-10/st_thompson

Why use this format? You may want to use a quotation that someone else has used and indicate the relation between the two works.  
How to do it Use the authors' names in your writing. Describe the relation between the texts, such as 'As X states in Y...' Use parentheses, quotation marks and years of publication accurately.